The Illustrated Field Deployment Guide for Rivers and Streams

DRAFT; DO NOT CITE

Example Installations

Extreme Variation in Stage - Rio Grande River in Texas

Above two photos show elevated installation platform and anchored sonde tubes at Rio Grande Near Santa Elena Canyon, Big Bend National Park. Stage at this site varies tremendously, requiring an elevated housing and reinforced sonde tubes.


Example 2: Wide stream with varying flow across the channel

USGS Station 01389005

Description – One continuous water-quality sensor (monitor) is located in a concrete-block gage house and measures the characteristics of water pumped sequentially from three separate intakes. Three intakes, left, middle, and right, are positioned at 70, 160, and 220 ft, respectively, from the edge of the monitor house on the left bank. The station is 400 ft downstream from the confluence of the Pompton River with the left bank of the Passaic River.
Telemetry – Satellite
Location – Passaic River below Pompton River at Two Bridges, New Jersey (USGS Station 01389005)
Data use – Hourly sensor readings for Water Temperature, Specific Conductance, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Dissolved Oxygen in Percent of Saturation, Turbidity, Nitrate plus Nitrite, Dissolved Organic Compounds and Total Chlorophyll-a for use in water treatment down-stream. Four algal classifications (green algae, cyanobacteria, cryptophytes and diatoms) along with Colored Dissolved Organic Matter) are also monitored but not published. Funding for the water-quality sensors is provided by North Jersey Water Supply Commission, Passaic Valley Water Supply Commission, and NJ Department of Environmental Protection.
Rational for station design - Multiple-point monitoring is possible at this site because of poor mixing below the confluence with the Pompton River. Pumping-system installation greatly reduces fouling resulting in less correction to the record but also less routine maintenance visits. Because all equipment is housed in a locked building, this further decreases cost associated with theft or natural disaster.
One submersible pump (per intake) pushes water up each 8” stilling well (one per intake) to a single, top-spilling sensor tank; stream water enters the well through three separate 3” intakes. The DCP is programmed to turn on each pump sequentially (the Left intake is pumped for 10 minutes prior to logging, then the Middle intake is pumped for 9 minutes before logging, and finally the Right intake is pumped for 8 minutes prior to logging).
Water-Quality Sensors and Instrumentation – Total Chlorophyll-a) (green algae, cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, diatoms, CDOM not published) & Spectrophotometer (NO3+NO2, DOC)
Data available (URL) - http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis
Operator – U.S. Geological Survey, New Jersey Water Science Center

Passaic River site air photo

Passaic River gage 1Passaic River gage 2


Example 3 - Large rivers, multiple instruments

In situations on large rivers or where multiple instruments are being deployed, enclosures can ease the deployment and retrieval of monitors as well as protect sensitive equipment from debris and other hazards.

Photo of instruments in protective cage

Photo above: Example of an instrument cage made of stainless steel and deployed on a concrete pier. Note the bracket on the right side of the photo that is designed to slide over an I-beam connected to the pier. (USGS CA Water Science Center)

Photo 2 of instruments in protective cage

Another view of a pier-mounted enclosure with multiple instruments. (USGS CA Water Science Center)

Example of a pier-deployed instrument cage

Another example of an enclosure designed to slide up and down an I-beam for access to service the enclosed sensors. (USGS CA Water Science Center)


Example 4 - Protection from ice and other debris

More examples of sonde deployment directly in waterbodies:

Steel tubes protect sondes from freezing, ice jams, and debris flow

Close up of end of sonde tube and autosampler intake

The above two photos show a 4" Galvanized steel pipe (left) strapped to a concrete wing-wall, with a perforated end section for a multiparameter monitor. To the right is a 2" galvanized pipe protecting a section of sampler intake tubing for an automated sampler. This type of installation is more expensive than PVC but holds up better in areas exposed to ice in winter and/or heavy debris flow, and to longer-term deployments in general. (USGS - Oswego River at Lock 7, Oswego , NY)


Example 5 - Flow-through installation in New Jersey

Description - The continuous water-quality sensor is located in a concrete-block house, 60 ft from the left edge of water and measures the characteristics of water pumped from one intake. A submersible pump pushes water up from an 8” stilling well to a top-spilling sensor tank; stream water enters the well through a 3” intake mounted above the streambed and extends into the stream approximately 15 ft from the left edge of water.
Telemetry – Satellite
Location – Raritan River at Manville, New Jersey (USGS Station 01400500)
Data use – Half-hour sensor readings (30 minutes) for Water Temperature, Specific Conductance, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, and Dissolved Oxygen in Percent of Saturation and Turbidity used by NJ Water Supply for use in water treatment systems downstream. Funding is provided by the NJ Water Supply Authority.
Rational for station design - Pumping-system installation greatly reduces fouling resulting in less correction to the record but also less routine maintenance visits. Because all equipment is housed in a locked building, this further decreases cost associated with theft or natural disaster.
Data available (URL) - http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis
Operator – U.S. Geological Survey, New Jersey Water Science Center
Operator Contact – Heather Heckathorn, Supervisory Hydrologist; Ph 609-771-3983,email haheck@usgs.gov

http://nj.usgs.gov/StationPhotos/trn/01400500_gh.jpg

  


Example 6 - Installations in typical Corn Belt region streams

Streams in the Corn Belt are typically low-gradient with often slow to sluggish flow velocities. Priorities for installations are locations with adequate flow that are both representative of the stream as a whole and minimize fouling due to sedimentation. Protection from ice in winter months and debris flows during high flow events is also important.

Above photo shows an example of multiple sensors deployed on the downstream side of a bridge spanning Lick Creek near Woodside, Illinois. (USGS gage 05576100, photo: Colin Peake, Illinois-Iowa Water Science Center)

Above: In this photo, a similar array of sensors is deployed on the downstream-facing side of a pier protection cell at Kaskaskia River near New Athens, Illinois. (USGS gage 05595000; photo: Colin Peake, Illinois-Iowa Water Science Center)

Above: Long vertical PVC tubes protect the sondes and cables from flows and debris while allowing easy access for servicing of the sondes; a series of brackets secure the tubes to the bridge at Little Wabash River at Carmi, Illinois. (USGS gage 03381495; photo: Colin Peake, Illinois-Iowa Water Science Center)

Above: The configuration of the piers on this bridge necessitated the construction of a platform to deploy and access the sensors at Embarras River at Lawrenceville, Illinois. (USGS gage 03346500; photo: Colin Peake, Illinois-Iowa Water Science Center).


Example 7 - Continuous monitoring of estuary water quality

New York estuaries may have a variety of impairments (excessive macroalgae, HABs, low DO & attendant fish kills); continuous data can help determine sources and timing.

Station design (above photo): Mount on existing, robust structures as close to mid-channel as possible for representative data; Use brass deployment pipes to reduce biofouling and protect instruments from storm debris, ice, and boats. (USGS New York Water Science Center)

Additional antifouling measures prolong service intervals and maintain quality data: Copper tape and screens; Brass sensor guards; Foam and brush wipers; and Zinc anodes reduce corrosion to handles, sensors, and wipers. (USGS New York Water Science Center)

Learn more about Southeastern New York Coastal Monitoring Sites at https://ny.water.usgs.gov/projects/tidal/live_coast.html.

 

 


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